The brake master cylinder is a critical component of any vehicle’s braking system. Here you are going to learn about the function of this component as well as the symptoms that you can expect when it fails. If you don’t replace it, then the safety of those in the vehicle will be in jeopardy.
The function of the brake master cylinder is to turn brake pedal pressure into hydraulic pressure. The master cylinder accomplishes this by providing the brake circuit with brake fluid. It also manages the amount of brake fluid that gets transferred, according to the pressure placed on the brake pedal. Whether you have drum brakes or disc brakes in your vehicle, each has a brake master cylinder in them.
The law requires that vehicles have 2 different braking circuits in them. The hydraulic pressure generated for them comes from tandem master cylinders. That way, if one braking circuit stops working, the other circuit will already have all the brake pressure to remain functional.
Whenever your foot pushes down on the brake pedal, the pressure piston receives the power pressure of your foot. This pushes the piston further near the brake line.
In older cars, the force of the brake is generated after the pressure chamber closes from the piston collar going on top of the bore. Modern cars have a spring supporting the pressure piston. As a result, when you take your foot off the brake pedal, it goes back to its starting position. Once this happens, the brake fluid goes back into the master cylinder. That way, the next time you press the brake pedal, it will increase the brake pressure again.
The Symptoms of a Faulty Brake Master Cylinder
1) Brake Fluid is Contaminated
There are rubber seals on brake master cylinders that get worn out after a while. If the rubber seals get in too bad of shape, the brake fluid will become contaminated and turn a darker color. Another effect of worn rubber seals is the inability for the master cylinder to sustain the amount of brake pressure placed on it. As a result, the brake pedal will feel mushy and start falling to the floor slowly.
2) Check Engine Light Illuminates
New cars have a “Check Engine” warning light on the dashboard. If this light were to illuminate then it could possibly be because of the master cylinder. Many new cars have master cylinders with pressure sensors and brake fluid sensors built into them. These sensors will detect if there is something wrong with the brake fluid pressure of the vehicle. If it finds the pressure dropping, for example, then the master cylinder is likely the cause.
3) Brake Pedal Abnormalities
When a brake master cylinder goes bad, one of the first things you’ll notice is the brake pedal acting strangely. After all, the brake pressure of the braking system comes from the brake master cylinder. If it can’t process or seal this pressure like it normally does, then you’ll feel abnormalities with the brake pedal. Getting back to the rubber seals of the master cylinder, if they are worn then it will cause brake fluid to leak internally. Once this happens, the pedal will feel mushy and it will gradually fall to the floor after you take your foot off it.
4) Low Levels of Brake Fluid
If the brake master cylinder has a low level of brake fluid, you will have braking problems for sure. The first thing you’ll notice is the brake pedal feeling soft as you lift your foot up on it. If there are no fluid leaks and the brake fluid levels look normal, then your master cylinder must be the problem. The brake fluid in the reservoirs need to be secured in there and they need to close properly. If the lids are not in place firmly enough, then you need to fix them.
If you examine each exterior component and don’t see any signs of problems with them, then your brake master cylinder is definitely going bad. It may even have failed already. If you test your braking system and look for the symptoms listed above, you will be able to tell if your brake master cylinder is truly to blame or if there is some other component to blame.